The Decision of
46th Muhammadiyah Congress
Muhammadiyah Program 2010-2015
II. Policy Framework of Muhammadiyah’s Long-Term Program (Muhammadiyah Vision 2025)
III. Muhammadiyah Program 2010-2015 (Muhammadiyah Vision 2015)
IV. Program Organization and Implementation
Praise be to God. Owing to His approval, bounty, guidance, and piety, Muhammadiyah as an Islamic Movement in one century span has carried out dakwah (Islamic mission) and tajdid (reform/renewal) to bring mankind to the life safety on earth and in the hereafter. Dakwah and tajdid movement done by Muhammadiyah is materialized through various endeavors that are later translated into program and activity whose main objective is reaching real Islamic society. In a wider scope, the mission of Muhammadiyah’s dakwah and tajdid is solely the realization of carrying out an Islamic message as pity for the entire world.
The real Islamic society that becomes Muhammadiyah’s objective is a noble ambition that may not be ideally achieved, but such ambition must be kept. At least it is close to the real Islamic society. Step by step, continuously, and systematically, Muslims’ life especially Muhammadiyah in one century span of its journey has tried to perform as a desired Islamic society, so Muhammadiyah members in general until certain limit is the real realization of Islamic society even though it is still far from ideal Islamic society. Muhammadiyah’s main duty is to keep trying in realizing real Islamic society in the life of Muhammadaiyah members and public in general, so in every step, better condition to reach real Islamic society can be achieved.
In achieving the real Islamic society, Muhammadiyah struggles through endeavors realized in program, charity and services, and activities. In doing those endeavors, Muhammadiyah as an Islamic movement that carries out dakwah mission and tajdid is always based on and guided to Islamic teachings that, among other, ask to do good deeds and abandon bad ones, implement God’s message, and crusade in His ways as He states in Al Quran.
Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining Al Ma’ruf and forbidding Al-Munkar. And it is they who are the successful. (QS Ali Imran: 104)
Those (Muslim rulers) who, if we give them power in the land, (they) enjoin iqamat-as-salat, to pay zakat and they enjoin Al-Ma’ruf and forbid Al-Munkar. And with Allah rests the end of all matters. (QS Al-Hajj: 41)
And those who answer the Call of their Lord, and to worship none but Him alone, and perform As-Salat, and who conduct their affairs by mutual consultation, and who spend of what We have bestowed on them. (QS As-Syura: 38)
As for those who strive hard in Us, We will surely guide them to Our Paths. And verily Allah is with the Muhsinun (good doers). (QS Al-Ankabut: 69)
Muhammadiyah was established with the objective to uphold and reverse Islam in order to realize the real Islamic society. In realizing that ideal vision and objective, Muhammadiyah does endeavors systematically. Muhammadiyah endeavors are implemented in the form of charity and services , program, and activities that include: (1) Promoting belief, deepening and broadening understanding, increasing implementation, and spreading Islamic teachings in all aspects of life; (2) Deepening and developing the study of Islamic teachings in all aspects of life to get its purity and truth; (3) Increasing the spirit of worship, crusade, charity, gift, bequest, alms, and other good deeds; (4) Increasing dignity, prestige, and the quality of human resource in order to have high skills and noble character; (5) Advancing and renewing education and culture, developing science, technology, art, and increasing research; (6) Advancing economy and entrepreneurship toward qualified life; (7) Increasing health quality and public welfare; (8) Maintaining, developing, and empowering natural resources and environment for prosperity; (9) developing communication, friendship, and cooperation in all fields with people in and outside Indonesia; (10) Maintaining the unity of country and having an active role in national life; (11) Developing and increasing quality and quantity of members as an movement doer; (12) Developing equipment, infrastructure, and fund source to make the movement successful; (13) Trying to enforce law, justice, and truth, and increasing the defense for people; and (14) Other endeavors and efforts suitable to Muhammadiyah objective and bylaws (article 3 of bylaws).
The realization to reach Muhammadiyah objective is done through a program that is formulated in every congress, as an action plan that has to be conducted in every step. The step can be middle term (5-year period) or long term suitable to vision and mission of development determined by the organization. In doing its program, Muhammadiyah as an Islamic organization is not deprived of the condition and context of Islamic movement existence in various environments. The condition faced by Muhammadiyah influences the movement dynamics, especially in doing the program to reach its primary goal, namely creating real Islamic society.
In general, after Malang Congress over the period of 2005-2010, there has been life development that is relatively dynamic, be it in national or global life. In national life, there has been a dynamic signed by the emergence of political, economical, and social-cultural problems that need priority to be solved. In global life, over the period of 5 year, there has been dunamic international phenomenon such as ratification of ASEAN Charter by ten countries; fast movement of geo-political, geo-economical, and geo-social-cultural gravity point from North America to Asia with China as the main center. Nationally and Internationally, Muslims also face the same problems. The conditional factor and background of the formulation of Muhammadiyah program are as follows:
1. National Life
As a matter of fact, Indonesia has a capital to be an advanced, just, prosperous, sovereign, and dignified country. This is supported by positive facts possessed by this country: first, strategic geopolitical position; second, the wealth of natural resources and the diversity of flora and fauna; third, the great amount of population; and fourth, the plurality of social and culture. However, such basic capital and big potential are not managed optimally. Even, they are often neglected, so this country has lost a lot of momentum to progress fast. This even creates a lot of complex problems.
It has to be appreciated that there are a lot of successful achievements in some fields of life such as democracy, economic recovery, and conflict resolution is some regions; however, it also has to be admitted that up to now Indonesia still faces complex national problems, among other, political, economical, and social-cultural problems that needs solution. The problems can influence the development of this country in the future. Now after reformation in 1998, Indonesia shows a dynamic between success and faced problems. Very often, the dynamic is not easily managed since there are a lot of constraints and weaknesses, including the problems of leadership and state management.
1998 reformation is a certain choice and has been an important part of Indonesian history as a way out of authoritarian New Order regime and condition in previous period. This new era is expected to be able to bring the improvement of political and economical system that is being attacked by multi-dimension crisis. With reformation, Indonesia becomes the third democratic country after the United States and India whose achievement is admitted internationally. Moreover, there has been admittance to the emergence of civil protection that was tightly curbed.
Yet, the country’s development in reformation era that has run one decade is still marked with the number of serious problems. National political development is relatively satisfying especially in the field of security stability and democracy. This is marked with increasing political participation, press freedom, law enforcement and human rights. The fact has put Indonesia as the biggest democratic country after India and the United States. Besides the achievements, there are still problems that need serious solution. Some of crucial political problems are the confusion of state and governmental system, ineffective state institution, unsupportive party system, and widely spreading political pragmatism.
Law enforcement and human rights don’t still touch basic aspects and still seem to be discriminative, showed by the number of unresolved big cases. Corruption eradication seems to be picky, showed by unresolved big corruption cases, low punishment for big corruptors, the development of law and case mafia, special treatment for corruptors in jail, and weak role of law enforcement institutions in fighting corruption. New nepotistic tendency also emerges by the involvement of family members in political arena without being based on professionalism and adequate political career that can result in political dynasty.
Democratic life has fast advancement, but there is a tendency of procedural democracy that is not balanced with substantive democracy, so the democratic quality and behavior tend to be pragmatic. This erases values, including moral values.
Democratic life indeed experiences fast advancement, but procedural democracy is not balanced with substantive democracy so that democracy quality and behavior tend to be pragmatic. This erases values, including moral values. In doing democracy, Indonesia tend to adhere to liberal democracy. In the long run, it will create problems, including a problem with moral and religion. Pancasila seems to lose its basic orientation in framing the democracy. Moreover, liberal democracy seems to become stronger in developing regional autonomy practices and in electing regional leaders, while multi-party political system in Indonesia seems to show the confusion of state and governmental system. The behavior of political elites and parties is getting more pragmatic, and they only focus on getting power. Even, until certain limit, they justify all means.
The chaos of 2009 general election, among other, shows pragmatic political tendency, while people’s dream especially low-level people to fulfill daily needs and to get more prosperous country is still a far cry from the expectation. Governance is not managed by proper management so it does not realize justice, prosperity, and the fulfillment for people’s needs as stated in 1945 Constitution and the aspiration of independence.
In economic development, there has been a lot of advancement that has been taken by this country. Economic growth and average income per capita keep growing. Macro-economic stability is also well-maintained. The government’s attention to economic problems of people is getting more real, shown with the manifold schema of economic programs for people, especially middle to low level of people.
However, it cannot be neglected that such economic advancement reflected in macro-economic growth and indicator is actually still inadequate and bias towards existing economic facts. Indonesian’s foundation and economic stability is still weak. This is because economic development orientation stresses more on the growing aspect and relies on foreign investment, foreign loan, and conglomeration. Such condition causes that development results are only for small part of people, creating a wide gap. The bases of national’s socio-economical life grow without strong hold. Some of basic and structural national economic problems are inconsistent economic paradigm, dualistic economic structure, not independent fiscal policy, finance and banking system that don’t support people, and liberal trading and industry policy.
Economic policy and paradigm that tend to be liberal or neoliberal make micro and middle economy not develop well and not get main priority. This country still faces ever-widening economic gap. The rich get richer, and the poor become poorer. This condition makes Indonesia more vulnerable to social unrest. Corrupt practices that are getting stronger also become a problem for economic recovery so that it increases the burden of economic problem to the poor.
In social and cultural aspect, Indonesia has reached some success. In the field of education, there has been an increase of educational budget, an increase of opportunity for studying, and an increase of Indonesian students’ achievement in regional and international level. In the field of law enforcement, there is a serious effort to eradicate corruption that brings an implication to public morality. There are laws that support human right, protect women and children, and uphold moral. In the field of religious life, there is awareness of living harmoniously in pluralism. In social relation, there is still a strong culture of working together in mutual cooperation and spirit of togetherness as shown when facing natural disasters.
However, there are still social and cultural problems that need serious solution, among others, the weakening of national unity, the disorientation of religious values, and the weakening of social cohesion, the weakening of positive mentality. In the field of education, this country is difficult to avoid educational commercialization due to government’s limitation in financing and giving proper educational services for school-aged children even though educational budget has been increased. Educational fee which is more difficult to be reached by the poor causes more widening social gap and causes new problems in social life.
Other striking problems are the weakening of national characters and the spreading of social ills in public such as violence to women and children, crime, gambling, pornography and porno-action, and other deviant behaviors that damage religious values and national moral. Weak national character is also shown in the practice of political life and the behavior of politicians as well as government’s officials who get involved in corruption, power abuse, and taking advantage of an opportunity. Political face and national life show pragmatism and opportunism, so there are unresolved problems, neglected people’s mandate, and strategic, big agendas that don’t get serious attention. The problems of character eradication and national character become a big agenda that has to be solved because they influence the country future.
Over the next period of ten to twenty years, Indonesia is projected to still have various changes full of dynamism and complex problems. Politically, Indonesia will develop to be more democratic even though it might not experience permanent political stability. Economically, Indonesia will have economic stability and will become one of “Asian Tigers”; however, it doesn’t guarantee equality and justice for people welfare. In the meantime, Indonesia will also face various social problems that are not easy to solve in the aspects of defense and security, the solution for natural destruction, and the maintenance of national dignity and prestige. Meanwhile, popular culture is spreading more widely hand in hand with fast development of electronic media. It makes Indonesian culture exist in a crossroad of global dynamism that is spreading like an octopus.
Indonesia also needs cultural strategy to face globalization and to face the dynamism of pluralistic Indonesian society that often faces many social conflicts. Besides, diverse languages, technological system, economical system, social organization, knowledge, religious, and art system tend to be strong by more effective democratic process and regional autonomy that can bring wide consequence of cultural system in Indonesian society. It will become a big challenge for Muhammadiyah that has developed into a bigger and more complex organization with its wider reach to present Islamic movement with nationalistic viewpoint and culture to give alternative answers that are enlightening, freeing, and empowering for the interest of future supremacy of this country.
In the next five years, Indonesia needs to revitalize national vision and character as a departure point to consolidate reformation. By realizing positive values produced by reformation and the awareness of difficult challenge, now the sharpening of reform vision and national development in this country is needed. Reformation needs to be designed and integrated into national development thoroughly and in a sustainable way, so reformation is in on the right way and track.
National development in all areas of life needs to be developed in meaningful sustainable development. This paradigm rests on the principle of human resource development as a development subject, the use of natural resources productively by keeping its preservation, economical and political policy that is side with the interest of people, high upholding of moral, and the maintenance of national dignity. Basically, meaningful sustainable development is an improvement effort in human life by keeping the balance between material and spiritual as well as individual and public.
In the next five years, there should be political, economical, and social-cultural revitalization as a link of revitalization of vision and national character as follows: (1) In political life, it needs the strengthening of democratic value and culture toward the stabilization state system and presidential governance, and the functional effectiveness of state institutions (executive, legislative, and judicative), party system rationalization, and the upholding of political ethic; (2) In economical life, it needs national economy strengthening characterized by the creation of just, independent, competitive, and pro people economy to reach national prosperity; and (3) In social cultural life, it needs nationalistic strengthening, transformative pluralism, social integration, and the promotion of strong character values.
2. Global Life
In the next few decades, human being and the reality of global life will still face the world marked by five great realities. They are (1) the hegemony of the USA; (2) the continuation of western culture domination; (3) market force and globalization; (4) the movement of industrial technology to digital technology, including digital divide/gap; and (5) the crushing of Islamic culture in the middle of the dynamism of global culture whose characteristic is post-modern. On the one hand, the globalization that becomes dominant power in the world in the 21st century opens a new world free of state partitions and old primordial things. On the other hand, it brings economical and political hegemony of developed countries that is not free from economical and political interests and brings global cultural infiltration with neo-liberal and neo-capital bases.
That global development is characterized with paradoxes. Advanced modernization and industrialization process has presented new realities. At the same time, it erodes old wisdoms that are actually needed by human being, such as pluralism and religiosity, togetherness and community, and local cultural wisdom. The globalization of information on the one hand has been able to merge geographical partitions among countries because we can know what is happening on the other part of the world in a very short time. On the other hand, cultural partitions seem to be more crystallized, shown by more conflicts based on faith differences as well as economical and political interests.
Meanwhile, bad impact of globalism or economic globalization forced from top to bottom or from center to region starts to show its new threat for public development, especially in the third world countries. At least, there are nine threats of globalization that haunt the world nowadays and in the future. First, the obfuscation of cultural and geographical/ecological boundaries makes the ability to adjust and endure decrease, especially for weak community and country. Second, world economy becomes two parts: muscle-rich countries and brain-rich countries. Third, the thinking style is influenced by information producer and its dominant disseminator, so it creates disturbance that cannot be adapted in Southern part. Fourth, at first glance, money is attracted and flows to the South, but in fact silently it flows more to the North. Meanwhile, the flow of the stuff and labor is not balanced. Fifth, the propaganda of human rights is a western version that relies on individualism. Many group rights are violated and neglected, and human rights are defeated by capital rights. Sixth, democracy is threatened by globalism. Democracy means many choices and multi options. Everyone and every country are free to choose the best for themselves, while globalism reduces varied diversity in the world. Seventh, consumption is aroused by advertisements that can be seen every time in mass media. The needs are dictated by strong economic countries suitable to their idea, and farming and food internationalization determines the winner and loser in the competition that is highly regarded more than cooperation. Eighth, food system globalization adds the gap between rich and poor countries and stimulates almost unlimited consumerism. Ninth, cultural contact happens in a big, fast, multi-dimensional, and simultaneous scale, so cultural abolishing, adaptation error, and cultural turmoil cannot be avoided. The striking influence can be seen in pop culture in music, information, talk, film, food, cloth, lifestyle, public and business administration, hobby, architecture, vacation, mental attitude, agriculture, and education. What should be on the alert for is the degradation of identity and assimilation error that can threaten the future of culture.
The widening of global culture in the context of Islamic world also put forward various Islamic thoughts and religious views such as conservatism, fundamentalism, radicalism, and traditionalism that face the tendency of extreme liberalism and secularism. Each of them claims the truth and denies other sides. Besides being unproductive for the advancement of Islamic world, such tendency does not solve the problems of poverty, underdevelopment, and low quality of education and Muslims’ life faced by Islamic world. At the same time, a big paradox also happens in Muslims’ life. Nowadays, Muslims are labeled as terrorists and have the image of underdevelopment, while the population of Muslims and the spirit to know Islam in western countries keep increasing. The global tendency becomes a challenge for Muslims, especially Muhammadiyah, to show that Islam is rahmatan lil-alamin (pity for the entire world) and is able to solve the problems of modern society.
Recent global development shows interesting development of international world. First, ten members of ASEAN countries that have commitment to become one community in economy, security, social, and culture has signed ASEAN charter. Second, the gravity central point of geo-politic, geo-economy, and geo-social-culture moves from Europe and North America to Asia, with China as its center. Muhammadiyah as an Islamic movement has to face and adjust to such global development.
3. Muslims’ Life
Indonesian Muslims are the biggest in the world. In the world level, the number of Muslims tends to increase. Now there are some 1.5 billion Muslims in the world. That big number is potential to be the power in national and international life. The awareness of Muslim since awakening era in 1980s has spurred the advancement Muslim countries and Muslim community in the world, including Indonesia, so it gives a positive hope for future development. However, it should be admitted that the problems and challenges faced by Muslims are very heavy. Those problems are poverty, lack of knowledge and technology, political marginalization. In general, Muslim countries are still left behind and are still categorized as developing countries. Muslims in some countries still face problems such as human rights issues, democracy, women rights, development of contemporary thinking, and structural problems that are actual in post-modern era.
The phenomenon of increasing Muslim population and desire to know Islam in western countries is a positive indication for the development of Islamic world. Positive development of Islam in Europe, the USA, Japan, and China shows new phenomenon about the existence of Islam in every developed country by the power of adaptation, acculturation, and integration that give hope for the future of Islam in the world. Unfortunately, the development doesn’t mean a lot without being accompanied by the awakening of Muslims in Islamic countries themselves to catch up western countries and to build new construction in terms of Islam and west relations.
Islam awakening era will really come into reality if Muslims want to do self-introspection on the causes of underdevelopment, not only despising western countries and blaming the influence of western values as a threat to Muslims. The dialog between Islam and West, including other countries on earth, is a new way to minimize conflict and build new world order that is more peaceful, fair, democratic, dignified, and civilized. This positive condition can even be utilized by Islamic countries and Muslims around the world to build new world order that is more advanced, prosperous, fair, dignified, and sovereign, being on the same level with more advanced countries. Therefore, Muslims in every country or in the world become the new power, and in the long run it will be able to show main culture as a historical experience in the era of Islam’s supremacy in the past.
The existence of Muslims in Indonesia shows two conditions between advancement and problem or challenge. The latest development shows positive Muslim participation in the dynamism of national life, marked by the involvement of Muslim elites and cadres into various governmental structures. It also strengthens Islamic organizations and institutions in the national political roles. This stronger participation has started since reformation era by the spreading of religious politic that is marked by the emergence of religious figures on the stage of national politic and the role of Islamic political parties. The economic field is marked by the growth of sharia economic system that gives more just expectation, and up to now it shows positive tendency by getting more sympathy from people. The growth of sharia banks and other Islamic financial institutions such as insurance or pawn house will still color Indonesia’s economy in the future. The expectation of politic and sharia economy in the future makes Islamic politic and economy becomes new power that is cleaner, more just, and prosperous as a more superior alternative than the others, so it is not only normative recognition.
Muslims in Indonesia are also not free from heavy problems and challenges. The growth in quantity is not equal to quality. Muslims still face the problems of poverty, low level of education and health, lack of science and technology, and low quality of life. The role of Islamic political party is not maximal in increasing life quality of Muslims in some areas, so they are still demanded to increase their role more optimally. Muslims’ strengths are demanded to draw up an agenda and strategic plans in the field of dakwah, education, economy, politic, social-culture systematically so as to be able to transform Muslims’ life toward supremacy in all aspects of life.
Developing Muslims’ spirituality and character needs functional transformation to produce dynamic piety. The phenomenon of dry spirituality experienced by modern people has created responses in many forms, such as majlis taklim, Islamic teaching group, zikir group, and other religious groups. The phenomenon is positive, but it has to be responded critically in order that Muslims are not trapped in the tendency of escapism (spiritual runaway) that will produce passive piety upon heavy social problems without being able to give adequate solution to real problems being faced by Muslims. Spiritual development in Islam must be able to produce social piety and care, must be able to provide solutions on real problems of Muslim and society, and must be able to make Muslims an agent of change as stated that Islam is pity for the entire world (rahmatan lil-‘alamin).
Especially in the field of education, Muslims are more expecting innovative and qualified Islamic education along with the widening growth of mid level Muslims. If the needs cannot be fulfilled, young Muslim people going to more qualified non-Muslim educational institutions will keep happening. In the long run, it will harm Muslims themselves. Better and more innovative Islamic institutions being able to fulfill world development are needed. Such educational transformation must be hand in hand with efforts to build power and independence in the field of economy, politic, social, and culture in an integrated way that is a necessity for the supremacy of Islam in the future.
The future development of Islamic world, including Islamic development in western countries, actually gives a hope, but it needs breakthrough, cooperation, renewal, projection, and the most important thing is more excellent thinking and mentality. The syndrome of inferiority complex that so far hits Muslims in many parts of the world is marked with reactive attitude in responding to problems faced by Muslims and in facing the West. Muslims need to change their orientation form challenging attitude (jihad li’l-mu’aradhah) to the attitude of facing the challenge bravely (jihad li’l-muwajahah), so they can perform as a world citizen who has excellent mental or great tradition as the era of Islamic supremacy in the golden era.
B. PROJECTION AND CONDITION OF MUHAMMADIYAH
Muhammadiyah organization that has passed one century is always related to and has relation with various problems being faced by Muslims nowadays nationally and globally, including the dynamism of Muslims. The position of Muhammadiyah in the dynamism and problem of national and global life, and Islamic world as previously described is framed and marked by five roles that generally depict the mission of organization. Those five roles are as follows:
First, Muhammadiyah as a tajdid movement keeps supporting the growth of the purity of Islamic teachings in an essential problem (al-tsawabit) and thinking development in matters of ijtihadiyah (interpretation) that focus on the mission of amar makruf nahi munkar (doing good deeds and abandoning bad ones). Muhammadiyah is responsible for the development of Islamic syiar (greatness) in Indonesia in the forms of: 1) Islamic teachings are understood and implemented in the life society, country, state, 2) Muslims’ life is more qualified, intelligent, and prosperous.
Second, Muhammadiyah as an Islamic movement with its tajdid (reform) spirit keeps supporting healthy Islamic thoughts in various aspects of life. The development of Islamic thought with tajdid character becomes the realization of an effort to materialize the message of Islam as rahmatan lil-alamin (pity for the entire world) that is useful to solve the problems of Muslims, country, state, and humanity in the global culture.
Third, as one of state components, Muhammadiyah is responsible for many efforts in reaching Indonesia’s aspirations as stated in the preamble of Constitution. The efforts are done through: 1) law enforcement and clean governance, 2) the expansion of job opportunity, healthy life, education, and free of poverty, 3) the strengthening of democratic ethic in economic and political life, 4) Free of bad practices and immorality in national life.
Fourth, as a world citizen, Muhammadiyah is responsible for the realization of Muslim advancement in all aspects of life that is free from underdevelopment, isolation, and mistreatment in global culture. With such roles, Muhammadiyah participates in building more advanced Islamic world civilization and is able to influence on fair, human, and lighting world development.
Fifth, as a world citizen, Muhammadiyah is always responsible for the creation of fair, prosperous, highly civilized world order suitable to the message of Islam as rahmatan lil-alamin. That global role is a necessity because, on the one side, Muhammadiyah is a part of the world. On the other side, the world development in a global level is still marked by many problems and crisis threatening life continuation of Muslims and their civilization due to the greed of advanced countries in exploiting many aspects of life.
In realizing those messages, Muhammadiyah needs to formulate its movement strategy that is materialized in Organizational Program. The program is realistic and anticipative to answer many problems of Muslims, country, and humanity by standing on the achievement of recent Muhammadiyah’s program. Considering the existence of Muhammadiyah as a movement directly under the dynamic center of Muslims and community, organizational program is formulated in an integrated way horizontally and vertically, and it must be sustainable in planning and doing in all levels, autonomous organizations, and amal usaha (charity and services) of Muhammadiyah.
The history shows that Muhammadiyah as an Islamic organization in one century life span has performed optimally in advancing the life of Muslims and the Republic of Indonesia and has given meaning for Muslims’ life in general. Muhammadiyah has struggled through the movement of dakwah and tajdid to stimulate religious life that is suitable to Al Quran and Sunnah (the sayings and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad). Muhammadiyah also does many renewal efforts for people through education, health service, social service, public empowerment, national political role, etc, which are the implementation to form real Islamic society and to show that Islam is pity for the entire world.
In the field of education up to 2010, Muhammadiyah has 4,623 kindergartens, 6,723 early childhood schools, 15 schools for the disabled, 1,137 elementary schools, 1,079 Islamic elementary schools, 347 religious schools, 1,178 junior high schools, 507 Islamic junior high schools, 158 Islamic senior high schools, 589 senior high schools, 396 vocational schools, 7 religious teacher schools, 101 Islamic boarding schools, and 3 vocational schools in pharmacy. In the level of higher education, up to 2010 Muhammadiyah has 40 universities, 93 institutes, 32 academy, and 7 polytechnic. In the field of health, up to 2010 Muhammadiyah has 71 general hospitals, 49 maternity clinics, 117 public health service/public health services for women and children, 47 polyclinics, and other health services. In the field of social welfare, up to 2010 Muhammadiyah has 421 orphanages, 9 senior citizen houses, 78 family fostering, 1 house for the blind, 38 death benefit, and 15 BPKM. In the field of economy, up to 2010 Muhammadiyah has 6 BPR (Bank of Public Credit), 256 Baitul Tamwil (Islamic Financial Institutions), 303 cooperatives.
The increasing number of charity and services does not shut another fact, namely the quality problem of Muhammadiyah’s charity and services. Muhammadiyah’s charity and services in terms of quality face two problems. First, their quality is late compared to their spectacular quantity, so they lose in competition in some extents. Second, the quality development of education is not equal. In some aspects, the weaknesses of Muhammadiyah’s charity and services get attention, especially in the fields of education and social and health services that are not able to show their competitiveness in national, let alone international level. Muhammadiyah’s charity and services do not undergo innovative process equally and significantly, so they tend to be static even though some have started to develop new ideas and methods to increase the quality and the existence of Muhammadiyah’s charity and services. In the future, more innovative quality improvement is needed, so Muhammadiyah’s charity and services are excellent in their respective field and are able to shoulder the dakwah and tajdid mission of Muhammadiyah.
Even though public sector such as economy and public empowerment has been done seriously since the period of 2005-2010, seemingly it still needs focused and systematized steps that directly hit the center of public problem, especially in the grassroots. Social-public program and activity done by Muhammadiyah suitable with the spirit of Surah Al-Maun needs to be more focused and can be directly beneficial for people,so this Islamic movement truly becomes the main strategic pillar in the grassroots. It can give guidance, lightning, freedom, and empowerment. With such public orientation, it is expected that Muhammadiyah becomes more real and stronger, and gives fullest benefit for civil society in the center of life of Indonesian society.
In terms of theology and Islamic thoughts, many say that Muhammadiyah belongs to the group that wants the application of authentic and pure Islamic teachings, namely by calling for going back to Al Qur’an and Sunnah (the sayings and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad). The negative implication is Muhammadiyah is often regarded as the one that has a tendency to neglect tradition, so it does not really know the tradition, be it classical Islam and local cultural tradition. Besides, many think that salafi (believers in a return to the practices of early Islamic times) of Muhammadiyah tends to be conservative (in religious thoughts) and fundamentalist (in political stance). This tendency makes Muhammadiyah unresponsive to Islamic thought development that is actual and contextual, makes it trapped in “narrow” activities in the national dynamism of Indonesia. In the future, the dynamism has to developed, together with purifying and enriching tajdid aspects in Muhammadiyah, so this Islamic movement is able to perform advanced Islam similar to the spirit of al-ruju’ ila al-Quran wa al-Sunnah by developing ijtihad (interpretation by careful study of Qur’an).
Recent Development of Muhammadiyah can be depicted in some aspects such as strengths, weaknesses, chances, and challenges as follows:
a. The Strengths of Muhammadiyah
As an organization that has reached one century, Muhammahdiyah has strengths on:
1) Islamic foundation based on Al-Quran and Al-Sunnah, along with ijtihad, is the strength of Muhammadiyah, so it becomes the biggest modern Islamic movement and especially gets Muslims’ trust and the trust from Indonesia and the world in general.
2) The reputation of Muhammadiyah as the biggest modern Islamic movement has been widely accepted nationally and internationally, so it effects on support for Muhammadiyah in doing its activities locally and nationally, including developing cooperation program with international institutions.
3) The organizational network of Muhammadiyah having existed nationwide and in some ASEAN countries as well as other countries make Muhammadiyah easy to do activities in the grassroots level that needs coordination in stages and involves wide public participation in many regions.
4) The fast development of charity and services quantitatively also becomes the important assets of resource, facility, and infrastructure for Muhammadiyah organization. Besides for surviving, charity and services also becomes the tool to improbve national and human life.
b. The Weaknesses of Muhammadiyah
Besides strengths, Muhammadiyah has weaknesses that have to be corrected, improved, and renewed. They are as follows:
1) Muhammadiyah has a tendency to be an action movement and to neglect thinking movement, so it does not really give big contribution to the development of Islamic and national thinking for Indonesia and for world civilization.
2) The fast development of charity and services quantitatively is not repaid with equal quality, so until certain limit, it is less competitive and doesn’t really give wider and more innovative contribution for the advancement of Muslims and nation.
3) The fast growth of organization makes Muhammadiyah tend to be bureaucratic and low in facing developing problems in public, especially in responding to new social problems such as the issues of human right violation, structural poverty, bad effect of globalization, human trafficking, environmental destruction, corruption, white collar crime, and widening demoralization problems in national life.
4) Big Muhammadiyah organization does not optimally touch public problems in the grassroots, especially those who are marginalized such as labors, farmers, fishermen, the destitute, and the oppressed, so there is an impression that this Islamic movement only acts in upper and urban level.
c. The Chances of Muhammadiyah
1) Public openness in Indonesia that is better and more democratic is beneficial objective condition for Muhammadiyah as a modern Islamic organization that has acted for a very long time in this country in all aspects of life.
2) Regional autonomy era that gives freedom for regional government to manage its own region becomes a chance for Muahmamdiyah to do more action in public decision making and regional development, so the existence and role of this organization become wider in the life of Indonesian society.
3) The recognition of international citizen for Muhammadiyah as one of civil society’s pillars in Indonesia opens a chance for vast cooperation in many countries and international institutions, so if this positive chance can be utilized well, it can increase the quality of charity and services as well as other Muhammadiyah’s activities.
4) ASEAN Charter gives an open opportunity for Muhammadiyah to widen its movement to cross the Indonesian borders and enter ASEAN countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, the Philippine, and Thailand.
5) The movement momentum of geo-political, geo-economical, and geo-social-cultural gravity center from Europe and North America to Asia, especially China, can be utilized to strengthen, modernize, and re-contextualize Muhammadiyah movement.
d. Challenges/Threats of Muhammadiyah
1) The flow of secularism-materialism attacking the world becomes a big temptation and challenge for Muhammadiyah members to be able to strongly hold their commitment in Muhammadiyah life and to make Islam as a religion of rahmatan lil-‘alamin (pity for the entire world).
2) The radical tendency in social-political and religious movement producing conflict and violence becomes a challenge for Muhammadiyah in offering Islamic movement that brings peace, lightning, and pity for the entire world.
3) The grip of global capitalism affects development and life orientation based on profit, exploitation, material worship, and worldly pleasure in the life of world community, so it also affects on the development of Muhammadiyah’s charity and services that tend to be profit-oriented and be far away from the theology/ideology of Al-Ma’un as an initial movement of PKO or Penolong Kesengsaraan Oemoem (Public Suffering Helper).
4) ASEAN Charter and the movement of geo-political, geo-economical, and geo-social-cultural gravity center from Europe and North America to Asia, especially China, can be a threat and challenge for Muhammadiyah when they are not responded by Muhammadiyah in a concrete way. The threat I s Muhammadiyah can be an outdated organization.
With previously mentioned background condition, Muhammadiyah made Muhammadiyah Program on the 46th Congress or One Century Congress as follows:
Preface consisting of background contains national condition, global development, Muslims, and global development; condition and projection of Muhammadiyah; and transcript systematic of Muhammadiyah program.
Policy framework of Muhammadiyah’s long-term program (Muhammadiyah Vision 2025) that explains vision/objective and mission of the program, program foundation, the principles of program arrangement, the steps of Muhammadiyah’s long-term program that starts from the period of 2005-2010 to 2020-2025.
Muhammadiyah’s program in 2010-2015 (Muhammadiyah Vision 2015) elaborating Muhammadiyah’s program in detail in many fields that will be done in the next five-year period includes the fields of Tarjih (law), Tajdid (reform), Islamic thought, Tabligh (religious preaching), education, science and technology, research and development, cadre formation, health, and
People welfare, bequest, economy empowerment and ZIS (charity, gift, and alms), public empowerment, environment, art, culture, and sport, literature and information, law and human rights, public policy, women empowerment and child protection, and foreign relation and cooperation.
Program organization and implementation contain the mechanism of program elaboration that consists of the mechanism of program elaboration from regional to sub-district level and the division of program implementation authority on respective leadership level.
Closing elaborates the need of strong spirit to mobilize all strengths to focus on the implementation of Muhammadiyah’s program.
(Trans by hamzah - uhamka)
II. Policy Framework of Muhammadiyah’s Long-Term Program (The Vision of Muhammadiyah 2025)
The Program of Muhammadiyah is a work plan to reach certain objective suitable to the determined mission that will be reached by the organization. Muhammadiyah’s program is the realization of the organization’s efforts to reach Muhammadiyah’s objective. The program is a series of planned and sustainable steps in realizing the mission of Muhammadiyah as an Islamic movement to carry out dakwah and tajdid mission and as a part of Islam and national component. Therefore, the program is arranged based on organizational basic reference, the reality of problem faced by Muslims, nation, and Islamic world, and ideal vision or condition that wants to be reached related to Muhammadiyah’s objective, namely the creation of real Islamic society.
A. Ideal Vision and Mission and the Efforts of Muhammadiyah
Muhammadiyah’s program is not merely plan and implementation of a series of practical activities, but it is actualization or realization of main mission of Muhammadiyah. The mission is to highly uphold Islam in order to realize real Islamic society. The main or ideal mission of Muhammadiyah is a sustainable movement that never stops since Muhammadiyah was established up to now and in the future. It is a collective struggle through organization. The main goal is real Islamic society that is actualized in a multi-variant movement through Muhammadiyah’s charity and services, organizational movement and dakwah, keluarga sakinah (a small, happy, and prosperous family), Qoryah Thoyyibah, and inclusive Islamic civil society (Masyarakat Civil Islam). Besides, it is done through forming religious group in the grassroots or sub-districts that reflect the quality of real Islamic society. Ideal vision, ideal mission, and Muhammadiyah endeavors that must be realized are as follows:
1.1. Ideal Vision of Muhammadiyah: The realization of real Islamic society.
1.2. Ideal Mission of Muhammadiyah
(1) Upholding pure Tauhid (oneness of God) based on Al-Quran and As-Sunnah.
(2) Spreading and advancing Islamic teachings that are Al-Quran and shahihah (authentic) As-Sunnah.
(3) Realizing Islam in personal life, family, and society.
1.3. Efforts of Muhammadiyah
(1) Fostering faith, deepening and widening understanding, increasing experience, and spreading Islamic teaching in all aspects of life.
(2) Deepening and developing Islamic studies in all aspects of life to get pure Islamic teaching.
(3) Increasing the spirit of worship, jihad (struggle in Islamic ways), charity, gift, bequest, alms, donation, and other pious deeds.
(4) Increasing dignity, prestige, and human resource quality in order to have high skills and noble characters.
(5) Advancing and renewing education and culture, developing science, technology and art, and increasing research.
(6) Advancing economy and entrepreneurship toward more qualified life.
(7) Increasing health quality and well-being of people.
(8) Maintaining, developing, and empowering natural and environmental resources for prosperity
(9) Developing communication, togetherness, and cooperation in various aspects inside and outside Indonesia.
(10) Maintaining the unity of nation and having an active role in national life.
(11) Encouraging and increasing the quality and quantity of members as a movement doer.
(12) Developing equipment and infrastructure and fund sources to succeed the movement.
(13) Promoting law enforcement, justice, truth, and increasing the defense for people.
(14) Other efforts suitable to the objectives of Muhammadiyah.
B. Judicial Foundation
Muhammadiyah program with its series of policy and activity is always based on:
(1) Al Quran and As Sunnah as a source of Islamic teaching and law.
(2) Statutes, bylaws, and the organizational regulations.
(3) National principles and laws.
C. The Principle of Program Execution
Muhammadiyah program is formulated and executed based on the following principles:
1. The principle of monotheism (Ketauhidan); it means Muhammadiyah program should be the realization of faith, monotheism, and worship to God;
2. The principle of mercy (Kerahmatan); it means Muhammadiyah program should be the realization and execution of Islamic mercy;
3. The principle of caliphate (Kekhalifahan); it means Muhammadiyah program should be the elaboration and execution of caliphate function of Muslims in life;
4. The principle of message (Kerisalahan); it means Muhammadiyah program should be the elaboration and execution of message function of Muslims, namely doing good deeds and abandoning bad ones in a wide meaning;
5. The principle of benefit (Kemaslahatan); it means Muhammadiyah program should pay attention to public benefit;
6. The principle of advancement (Kemajuan); it means Muhammadiyah program is a series of activities that brings to the successful effort in reaching organizational objective.
7. The principle of rationality (Rasionalitas) and knowledge (Keilmuan); it means Muhammadiyah program is planned and executed rationally by paying attention to and utilizing science and technology rationally;
8. The principle of local creativity (Kreatifitas Lokal) and proportional decentralization (Desentralisasi Proporsional); it means the planning and execution of Muhammadiyah program in every leadership level and autonomous organization and charity, apart from referring to Muhammadiyah program as a result of congress decision, should be arranged and executed by considering the problem and potential of local resources and balanced as well as proportional combination between central approach (top-down) and decentralization approach (bottom-up);
9. The principle of flexibility (Fleksibilitas), effectiveness (Efektivitas), and efficiency (Efisiensi); meaning the execution of Muhammadiyah program should be flexible and effective by efficiently utilizing human resources.
10. The principle of law and justice (Hukum dan Keadilan); meaning the execution of Muhammadiyah program should consider/pay attention to the creation of justice in society and national life.
D. The Objective of Long-Term Program (Muhammadiyah Vision 2025)
Muhammadiyah’s Long Term Program that has been drawn up since the 45th Congress in 2005 to 2025 is an achievement step of organizational objective, namely upholding Islam to realize a real Islamic society. Specifically, the formulation of Long Term Program as Muhammadiyah vision 2015 is: “Make Muhammadiyah an excellent Islamic movement and create an ideal condition for the realization of real Islamic society,”, marked by:
1. Created Muhammadiyah development as an excellent Islamic movement compared to other Islamic movements in carrying out the mission of dakwah (propagation) and tajdid (renewal) showed by the excellence of the movement agents, movement system, organization and leadership, network, enterpreneurship, and movement action as the important and strategic factors for the realization of real Islamic society and showed by Muhammadiyah roles in the dynamic living of people, country, and the global world.
2. Implemented Islamic teachings and aroused people’s awareness of the excellence of the Islamic way of life that assures the realization of better/excellent social system in all walks of life as the form of the existence of Islam as the blessings for the universe and brings people to reach safety/happiness in the world and the hereafter (khasanah fiddun-ya wa a- akhirah).
3. Developed social, national, and state lives which are more excellent marked by the development of religious life, morality, intellectuality, and social capacity; encourage the functions of social power and govermental institutions assuring the realization of advanced, just, prosperous, dignified, and sovereign state and national life under the blessing of Allah SWT (baldatun tayyibatun wa rabbun ghafur).
4. Just, peaceful, and dignified global life system and proportional role and responsibilities of Moslem people (Islamic world) among other world community as the form of the existence of Islam as the blessings for the universe in the global world.
E. Steps of Program Policy
Long Term Program Policy is a guideline and the course of organization carried out gradually through a five-year program which is conducted within 20 years. The stages of the long-term program are:
a. First stage (2005-2010), Muhammadiyah program policy in the first five years focuses on : (1) organizational and network development and structuring to be able and effective as an Islamic movement which is advanced, professional, and modern; (2) quality structuring and development of movement system to create the ideal condition to realize real Islamic society; and (3) improved Muhammadiyah role in people’s live and in the global community.
b. Second Stage (2010-2015), the second five year of Muhammadiyah program policy focuses on: (1) improvement and development of organization and network to be an advanced, professional, and modern Islamic movement; (2) improvement and development of excellent and independent movement system, human resources, and entrepreneurship to create the ideal condition to realize real Islamic society; and (3) improvement of Muhammadiyah’s strategic role in people’s life as well as in the global world.
c. Third stage (2015-2020), the third five year of Muhammadiyah program focuses on (1) transformation (rapid change towards development) of network and organizational system which are advanced, professional, and modern; (2) developed movement system and enterpreneurship which are excellent and independent to create the ideal condition to realize real Islamic society; and (3) enhancement and development of Muhammadiyah’s strategic roles in people’s life and in the global world.
d. Fourth stage (2020-2025), the fourth (last) five-year Muhammadiyah program policy focuses on: (1) realized excellent Muhammadiyah movement system elements; (2) created ideal condition for the realization of real Islamic society; and (3) wider strategic roles of Muhammadiyah in people’s and nation’ life and in the global world.
F. Muhammadiyah Program Guidelines
1. Sector of Tarjih, Tajdid, and Islamic Teaching Program
a. Strategic Plan:
Put tarjih, tajdid, and Islamic teachings alive in