KH Ahmad Dahlan (Chairman 1912 - 1922)
If only in 1868 was not born a baby named Muhammad Darwisy (existing literature, wrote the name Darwisy only), Kauman Village west of the North Square of Yogyakarta is arguably no other privilege, other than as a settlement around the Great Mosque of Yogyakarta. History and other records, and Kauman eventually became a big name as the village of birth of a National Hero of Indonesia, Kiai Haji Ahmad Dahlan: The initiator birth Persyarikatan Muhammadiyah on 8 Dhu al-Hijjah 1330 AH coincides with 18 November 1912.
Muhammad Darwisy born from both parents are known to be very pious, namely KH. Abu Bakr (the Great Mosque of Imam Khatib Yogyakarta Sultanate) and Nyai Abu Bakr (daughter of Abraham H., Hoofd ruler of Yogyakarta). Muhammad Darwisy is the fourth child of seven brothers who five are women, except his youngest sister. No one is denying pedigree as a descendant of Muhammad Darwisy twelfth of Maulana Malik Ibrahim, a great saint and foremost among the Wali Songo, and is also known as the first pioneer of the spread and development of Islam in Java (Kutojo and Safwan, 1991). Similarly, the genealogical chain: Muhammad Darwisy is the son of KH Abu Bakar bin K.H. Sulaiman bin Muhammad bin Murtadla chaplain chaplain Ilyas bin Demat Demat Djurung omen readers Kapindo bin Djurung omen readers Sapisan Maulana Sulaiman bin Ki Ageng Gribig (Jatinom), son of Maulana Muhammad Fadlullah (Prapen), son of Maulana 'Ainul Yaqin, son of Maulana Ishaq, son of Maulana Malik Ibrahim (Jonah Regards, 1968: 6).
Muhammad Darwisy educated in boarding schools since childhood, and also become the place to draw knowledge of religion and Arabic. Pilgrimage to Mecca when he was 15 years old (1883), then proceed with studying religion and Arabic in Makkah for five years. Here he interacts with the thoughts reformers in the Islamic world, such as Muhammad Abduh, Al-Afghani, Rashid Rida, and Ibn Taymiyyah. Fruit thinking Muslim figures has a great influence on the Dervish. Life and thoughts fully encouraged by the flow of this renewal that would later show the same religious complexion, namely through the Muhammadiyah, which aims to renew the religious understanding (the Islamic) in most of the Islamic world at that time who still are orthodox (conservative). Orthodoxy is seen causing rigidity of Islamic teachings, as well as stagnation and decadence (underdevelopment) Muslims. Therefore, this static religious understanding should be revised and updated, with motion purification or refining of Islamic teachings with a return to the Koran and al-Hadith.
At the age of 20 years (1888), he returned to his village, and changed its name Haji Ahmad Dahlan (a habit of Indonesian people returning pilgrim, always got a new name instead of his first name.) Upon their return from Mecca this, he also appointed Amin Khatib within the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. In 1902-1904, he performed the pilgrimage a second time followed by a deepening of religious knowledge to a few teachers in Makkah.
On his return from Mecca, he married Siti Walidah, his own cousin, the son of Kyai Haji Fadhil prince, later known as Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, a National Pahlawanan and founder Aisyiyah. From his marriage to Siti Walidah, K.H. Ahmad Dahlan have six children namely Djohanah, Siradj Dahlan, Siti Busyro, Irfan Dahlan, Siti Aisyah, Siti Zaharah (Kutojo and Safwan, 1991). In addition, K.H. Ahmad Dahlan had also married Nyai Abdullah, widow of H. Abdullah. He also never married Nyai Rum, brother of Kyai Munawwir Krapyak. K.H. Ahmad Dahlan also has a son from his marriage to Mrs. Nyai Ayesha (sister Ajengan prince) named Dandanah Cianjur. He was also married to Nyai Yasin, Pakualaman Yogyakarta (Jonah Salam, 1968: 9).
Ahmad Dahlan was a very cautious in their daily life. There is an advice that he wrote in Arabic for itself:
"O Dahlan, was in front of you there is great danger and events that will surprise you, which you should definitely pass. Maybe you can pass through safely, but maybe you also will perish by it. O Dahlan, try to imagine you as if you were alone with God, while you face death, the courts, reckoning, heaven, and hell. And from all that you face it, ponder the closest to you, and leave the other (translated by Djarnawi Hadikusumo).
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Bila engkau berhati bebek orang akan memperlakukanmu seperti bebek. Bela engkau berhati harimau orang akan memandangmu sebagai harimau.
[KH. R. Hadjid]