1868 - 1910
• Ahmad Dahlan was born in Kauman Village, Yogyakarta. He was named Muhammad Darwis. His father, K.H. Abu Bakar, was a preacher at Great Mosque of Kauman Yogyakarta. His mother was Siti Aminah, a daughter of K.H. Ibrahim who worked as a high rank official in Yogyakarta.
• Young Darwis was famous for his skills in making handicraft and toys. Similar to other boys, he was also good at flying kite and spinning a top.
• He learned advanced Islam in his teenage life. He learned fiqh (the legal foundation of Islam) from K.H. Muhamad Saleh and nahwu (grammar) from K.H. Abdul Hamid in Lempuyangan and K.H. Muhammad Nur.
• Before making the pilgrimage to Mecca, kinds of books Dahlan read were mostly Ahlussunnah wal jamaah’s books of aqaid (faith), fiqh books of Imam Syafii’s school of thought, and tasawuf (Islamic mysticism) books of Imam Gazali.
• Muhammad Darwis made the first pilgrimage to Mecca. In the holy land, he learned a lot from ulema (Islamic scholars). He learned hadits (sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad) from Kyai Mahfudh Termas and Syekh Khayat, qiraah (Al Quran recitation) from Syekh Amien and Sayid Bakri Syatha, and falaq (astronomy) from K.H. Dahlan Semarang. He also learned from Syekh Hasan about overcoming animal toxin. Besides those gurus, for eight months he engaged in social life with Syekh Akhmad Khatib and Syekj Jamil Jambek from Minangkabau, Kyai Najrowi from Banyumas, Kyai Nawawi from Banten, ulema from Arab, and new thought he learned during his living in Mecca.
• Coming back from first pilgrimage, he spent half of trading capital worth f 500 given by his father to buy books.
• Ahmad Dahlan married Siti Walidah who was later known as Nyai Ahmad Dahlan. She was the founder of Aisyiyah, a women organization.
• His father who worked as a preacher passed away. In accordance with the custom of Yogyakarta Royal Palace, Ahmad Dahlan, as the oldest son, replaced his father’s position as a preacher.
• Dahlan invited 17 ulema around Yogyakarta to discuss about the direction of Kaabah in Mecca (kiblat) at his family’s prayer house in Kauman. Kiblat was a sensitive problem at the time. The discussion lasted till dawn without reaching agreement. A few days later, however, two people who listened to the discussion made a white line with a thickness of 5 cm in front of prayer leader’s area at Great Mosque in Kauman. The line changed kiblat, so it alarmed people coming for dzuhur (noon) prayer. H.M. Kholil Kamaludiningrat, the Kyai Penghulu (head of mosque), ordered to erase the line and to find the doers.
• The charity (zakat) committee.
• The first animal sacrifice (kurban) committee.
• Using hisab (mathematic) method to replace aboge method and moon observation
• Kyai A. Dahlan’s prayer house was torn down.
• Ahmad Dahlan made the second pilgrimage to Mecca. He learned again from the gurus having taught him during his first pilgrimage to deepen his Islamic theology. He learned fiqh from Syekh Saleh Bafadal, Syekh Sa’id Yamani, and Syekh Sa’id Babusyel. He learned hadis from Mufti Syafii, falaq from Kyai Asy’ari Bawean and qiraat from Syekh Ali Misri Makkah. During his residing in Mecca, furthermore, Dahlan had close relationship with Indonesian ulema who had lived in Saudi Arabia for long time to discuss about social-religious problems, including the problems happening in Indonesia. The ulema were Syekh Ahmad Khatib, Kyai Nawawi from Banten, Kyai Mas Abdullah from Surabaya, and Kyai Fakih from Maskumambang.
• Ahmad Dahlan officially became the member of Budi Utomo organization. Then he became the committee member of kring (an association consisting of a number of people who form a coherent social group) in Kauman and one of commissioners of Budi Utomo leadership in Yogyakarta Branch.
• Ahmad Dahlan also became the member of Jamiat Khair, the Islamic organization engaged in education whose majority of its member is Arabs.
• Assisted by R. Budiharjo and R Sosrosugondo, the committee and members of Budi Utomo interested in Islam, Ahmad Dahlan got the chance to teach Islam for Kweekschool students in Jetis.
• Ahmad Dahlan’s desire to set up educational institution applying school system that teaches Islam and general sciences became a reality. The first school started with 8 students, located in a living room of his 2.5 m x 6 m house. He acted as a teacher. At the beginning, teaching-learning process did not run well. Apart from a boycott from surrounding people, the eight students were also often absent. Ahmad Dahlan was not reluctant to come to his students’ house and ask them to be back to school.
1911 - 1920
December 1, 1911
• The school set up by Ahmad Dahlan was announced officially and named Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Diniyah Islamiyah. When inaugurated, the school had 29 students. Six months later, there were 62 students.
• Mas Mansur was in Egypt, studying from Syaikh Ahmad Maskawih at Al-Azhar University. The condition in Egypt at the time was full of spirit to foster nationalism awakening and reform. Many leading figures supported the spirit of Egyptians through mass media or speech. Mas Mansur also made use of the condition by reading writing spreading on mass media and listening to the speeches.
• November 18, 1912 or Dzulhijjah 8, 1330 in Islamic calendar, Muhammadiyha was founded. The first nine inner board consisted of Ahmad Dahlan as a Chairman, Abdullah Sirait as a Secretary, and the board members were Ahmad, Abdul Rahman, Sarkawi, Muhammad, Jaelani, Akis, and Mohammad Fakih.
• December 20, Ahmad Dahlan proposed to obtain legal entity from Dutch colonial government. The proposal was granted in 1914 with Government Decree No. 81 dated August 22, 1914. The permit was given for Yogyakarta area only, and the organization was allowed to run only in Yogyakarta. Dutch colonial government was worried of the organization’s development. Therefore, its activities were limited. Even though Muhammadiyah movement was restricted, its new branches appeared in some areas such as Srandakan, Wonosari, and Imogiri. This was absolutely in conflict with the decision of the colonial government. To solve the problem, KH Ahmad Dahlan urged that Muhammadiyah branches outside Yogyakarta use different name, for example, Nurul Islam in Pekalongan, Al Munir in Ujung Pandang, Ahmadiyah in Garut. An organization named Sidiq Amanah Tabligh Fathonah (SATF) that was lead by Muhammadiyah branch appeared in Solo. Inside Yogyakarta, KH Ahmad Dahlan urged people to set up organization and association to study Islam and act in favor of Islam. The organizations and associations, among others, Ikhwanul Muslimin, Taqwimuddin, Cahaya Muda, Hambudi-Suci, Khayatul Qulub, Priya Utama, Dewan Islam, Thaharatul Qulub, Thararatul-Aba, Ta’awamu alal birri Ta’ruf bima kanu wal-Fajri, Jamiyatul Muslimin, and Syahratul Mubtadi got guidance from Muhammadiyah (Kutojo dan Safwan, 1991: 33).
• A school was set up in Karangkajen
• Three girls from Kauman entered a public school named Neutraal Meisjes School in Ngupasan
• Algemeene Vergedering II in Yogyakarta
• Girl organization was set up in Sopo Tresno. Its activity was helping girl orphans to support the group of young men who was involved in public suffering assistance.
• Sworo Muhammaijah in Javanese and Melayunese was published using Latin and Javanese alphabet.
• Algemeene Vergadering III in Yogyakarta
• A school was set up in Lempuyangan.
• Algemeene Vergadering IV in Yogyakarta
• A school was set up in Pasar Gede (Kota Gede)
• Suwara Muhammadiyah was published using Javanese.
• Algemeene Vergadering V in Yogyakarta
• May 17 or Rajab 27, 1335 in Islamic calendar, Aisyiyah was set up as the activity expansion of woman members of Muhammadiyah.
• Up to this year, there were 4 Muhammadiyah schools teaching Islamic theology and general sciences.
• Algemeene Vergadering VI in Yogyakarta
• KH A. Dahlan often preached in Gang Paneleh, Surabaya. For the first time, H.O.S. Tjokroaminoto, Bung Karno, and Roeslan Abdoelgani listened to KH Ahmad Dahlan’s preaching about Islam
• A new school was set up in Suronatan.
• A school for prospective teachers in Islam was set up. The school was named Al-Qismul Arqa. It took place at Ahmad Dahlan’s house.
• Algemeene Vergadering VIII in Yogyakarta
• Fakhruddin’s contribution in developing SI (Serikat Islam or Islamic Union) was very big. Due to his contributions, he was appointed as an SI commisioneer.
• Hoogeschool Muhammadiyah was set up.
• Somodiirdjo was managed to set up an association whose members were students of Standard School Muhammadiyah. The Association was named Siswa Praja (SP). Five months later, male and female members were separated. Siti Wasilah chaired Siswa Praja’s female students. It was the pioneer of Nasyiatul Aisyiyah (NA). Before becoming NA in 1931, Siswa Praja’s female students were part of Aisyiyah.
• Algemeene Vergadering VIII in Yogyakarya
• Boy Scout named Padvinder Muhammadiyah was formed. Then the name was changed into Hizbul Wathon based on Hajid’s proposal.
• Fakhruddin was appointed as Penningmeester (treasurer) of SI. He held the post till 1923.
• The school located in Kauman couldn’t accommodate more students, so half of the students were moved to Suronatan. The school in Kauman was for female students and known as Pawiyatan School of Muhammadiyah.
• Siswa Praja organization was formed as an extra curricular for all Muhammadiyah schools’ students. It was on the initiative of Sumodirdjo, the principal of Muhammadiyah Suronatan School.
• Algemeene Vergadering IX of Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta
• A special class for Number 2 School was formed. This special class was for students of private or government Number 2 School who did not get lessons on Islam at their school of origin.
• The groups of Islamic study for male and female students and adults around Kauman and other places in Yogyakarta residency.
• Free Islam courses at Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Islamiyah in Kauman were conducted.
• The use of hisab (mathematic) method based astronomical data to decide the first of Syawal in Islamic calendar was applied. The method replaced previous methods, namely aboge method and moon observation (hilal).
• Aisyiyah Prayer House was built. It was aimed for women especially living a around Kauman to do joint prayer and to discuss religious problems.
• Leaflets on Islam were printed and distributed for free, while books were still for sale.
1921 - 1930
• New branches appeared outside Yogyakarta residency, namely Blora (November 27), Surabaya (November 27), and Kepanjen (December 21).
• On May 7, 1921 Dahlan submitted a proposal to Dutch colonial government to set up Muhammadiyah branches all over Indonesia. The proposal was granted by the government (September 2, 1921).
• Teacher School of Muhammadiyah that was equivalent to Dutch government’s Kweekschool was set up. The school was named Pondok Muhammadiyah.
• Since this year, Fakhruddin’s most valuable contribution was leading the way for Soeara Muhammadiyah to be an official magazine of Hoofdbestuur Muhammadiyah under Literature Department. Besides, he also had contribution in setting up Percetakan Persatuan as a Muhammadiyah’s printing company. Through the company, all publication of Muhammadiyah’s activities in the forms of magazine, annual news, calendar, and book were printed and spread to regions.
• Fakhruddin went to Mecca. There were two things he would do: making the pilgrimage and carrying out a job given by Hoofdbestur Muhammadiyah to find out hajj system for improvement. Mission was done for hajj management system in Indonesia at that time was very bad and harmed Indonesian Muslims. In his pilgrimage, Fakhruddin had a chance to see King Syarif Husein to talk about hajj management system and introduced Muhammadiyah movement. He even had a big role in paving the way of forming Persaoedaraan Djamaah Hadji Indonesia (PDHI) or Indoneisan Hajj Brotherhood.
• Algemeene Vergadering X in Yogyakarta
• Aisyiyah or Muhammadiyah’s wife was formed on April 12 and was in charge of special activities for women.
• Jaavergadering XI of Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta.
• Ahmad Dahlan led Muhammadiyah delegation in Al-Islam congress in Cirebon. The congress was organized by Syarikat Islam (SI) to find a new way of consolidating Muslim union. In the congress Muhammadiyah, together with Al-Irsyad (a modern Arabs’ organization led by Syeikh Ahmad Surkati), had heated debate with orthodox Islam from Surabaya and Kudus. They blamed Muhammadiyah for attacking established ideology (traditional-conservative) and said that Muhammadiyah set up new mazhad (schools of thought in Islam) beyond the four existing and established mazhab. They also blamed Muhammadiyah for having intention to make new interpretation of Al Qur’an, and according to traditional-orthodox it was strictly forbidden. Responding to the accusation, Ahmad Dahlan said, “Muhammadiyah aspires to raise Islam from underdevelopment. Many Muslims revere ulema’s interpretation more than they do to Al Qur’an and Hadis. We have to directly learn from the sources, not only from interpretation books.
• Sutan Mansur’s thinking restlessness for change and reform found its answer when he talked with Ahmad Dahlan who often came to Pekalongan for preaching. Through the interaction, he finally joined Muhammadiyah (1922) and set up Perkumpulan Nurul Islam in Pekalongan along with traders from Maninjau who had joined Muhammadiyah earlier. In Muhammadiyah, he found that Islam was not simply the knowledge by knowing and understanding its laws in detail as taught in Minangkabau, but there should be an effort to put it into practice. He was so impressed when Muhammadiyah members did animal sacrifice (qurban) after doing Idul Adha prayer and distributed the qurban to the destitute.
• Sekolah Angka 1 (elementary school) named HIS Met de Qur’an was set up.
• Fakruddin’s great name was recorded in big events of this country. When there was Indies Al-Islam Congress I in Cirebon in 1922, he was appointed Komite Pengusaha Pendiri (Committee of Founding Entrepreneur) of Indies Al-Islam Council.
• Ahmad Dahlan passed away on February 23 or Rajab 7, 1340 in Islamic calendar.
• Perkoempoelan Tahoenan (Annual Meeting) XII of Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta
• Muhammadiyah Kweekschool was divided into Mu’allimin (male teacher) and Mu’allimat (female teacher).
• Annual Meeting that changed into Muhammadiyah Congress elected K.H. Ibrahim as the Chief of Board of Directors. He held the post till 23rd Congress in Yogyakarta in 1934. K.H. Ibrahim was successful in setting up Adz-Dzakirat cooperative.
• The first hospital was built in Yogyakarta, followed by Bandung, Sepanjang, Surabaya, Ujung Pandang (Makasar), Semarang, and Banjarmasin.
• K.H. Ibrahim set up Fonds Dachlan (Dahlan Foundation) to fund school cost for poor children.
• The first orphanage was set up.
• Muhammadiyah Congress XIII in Yogyakarta
• K.H. Ibrahim held mass circumcision. He also improved marriage body to marry Muhammadiyah members’ children. Muhammadiyah intensified its teaching outside Java.
• Percetakan Persatuan (Muhammadiyah’s Printing Company) started to operate.
• Rapat Besar Tahunan (Annual Mass Meeting) XIV in Yogyakarta
• House for the Poor was set up.
• Fakhruddin drove Muslim parade to protest Yogyakarta resident’s policy who favored Christian’s mission. The effect was Muslims realized that they were actually the majority.
• There was intimidation and conflict between Muhammadiyah and communists in Ranah Minang at the end of 1925. Hoofdbestuur Muhammadiyah sent Sutan Mansur to lead and organize Muhammadiyah that just grew and started to develop in Minangkabau.
• The 15th Muhammadiyah Congress in Surabaya.
• Haji Soedjak formed Bagian Penolong Haji (Hajj Assistance)
• Mas Mansur and HOS Tjokroaminoto went to Saudi Arabis as an Indies representative.
• Fakhruddin’s political involvement in SI ended in 1926 due to a crisis among SI members that finally produce the party’s discipline regulation to prohibit dual membership. Fakruddin chose to be in Muhammadiyah. Famous for demonstration, Fakhruddin, along with Suryopranoto (famous as stakings koning or King of Strike) drove sugarcane farming worker to demand rights, honor, and fair wages. Therefore, he had ever been sued in a court and fined 300 guilder.
• Fakhruddin was elected by Indies Al-Islam Congress and Chilafat Committee as a representative to attend Chilafat Congress in Egypt. Because the congress was postponed, he did not go.
• Gabungan Keluarga Pelajar Muhammadiyah (GKPM) or Union of Muhammadiyah Student Family was set up in Malang and Garut.
• Muhammadiyah started to be known outside Java Island from 1926 to 1929.
• Sutan Mansur and Fakhruddin did tabligh (preaching) and developed Muhammadiyah in Medan and Aceh.
• The 16th Muhammadiyah Congress in Pekalongan
• Fakruddin passed away at young age, around 39 years old, on February 28, 1929.
• Muhammadiyah sent its school graduates (Mu’allimin, Mu’allimat, Tabligh School, Normaalschool) to all parts of the country. They were known as ‘Muhammadiyah Arrows’ (AR Fachruddin, 1991).
• During the 17th Muhammadiyah Congres under K.H. Ibrahim’s chairmanship, Muhammadiyah set up Uitgeefster My, a business entity that printed textbooks for Muhammadiyah schools under Taman Pustaka Council. At that time, Ahmad Dahlan’s picture was removed since there was a sign of deifying him.
• Sutan Mansur stood at the front line to fight Dutch colonial government’s effort in applying the rule of Ordinance Teacher. The rule forbad Islamic religious teachers to teach before getting teaching permit from the colonial government. The rule, according to Sutan Mansur, demolished freedom of spreading religion, and Dutch colonial government will surely utilize ulema having no life principles. The same stance was also shown when Japan tried to make students not fast and had intention to prevent salat (prayer) by having the meeting on the eve of Magrib (sunset) prayer.
• The 18th Muhammadiyah Congress in Surakarta
• Sutan Mansur was managed to build Muhammadiyah branches in Banjarmasin, Kuala Kapuas, Mendawai, and Amuntai.
• The 19th Muhammadiyah Congress in Bukit Tinggi (March 14-26, 1930). The congress decided that there must be a representative of HB Muhammadiyah called Muhammadiyah Consul in every residency.
• Muhammadiyah branch was set up in Marauke.
1931 - 1940
• Sutan Mansur was inaugurated as Muhammadiyah Consul until 1944. Sutan Mansur also led Kulliyah al-Muballighin of Muhammadiyah in Padang Panjang.
• The 20th Muhammadiyah Congress was held in Yogyakarta. The congress decided female Praja students became Nasyiatul Aisyyah.
• The 21st Muhammadiyah Congress was held in Makasar. It decided that Muhammadiyah publish newspaper (dagblaad). The management is given to Muhammadiyah executive of Solo Branch that was later known as Adil.
• On May 2 or Dzulhijja 26, 1350 in Islamic calendar, Pemuda Muhammadiyah (Muhammadiyah Youth Association) was set up.
• Until this year, Muhammadiyah already had 103 Volkschool, 47 Standaardschool, 69 Hollands Inlandse School (HIS), and 25 Schakelschool, a 5-year school that will continue to MULO (Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs or SLTP in this era) for vervolgschool graduate or standaardschool’s grade V. Those schools also use Dutch as a medium of instruction.
• Muhammadiyah schools at that time were the only educational institution founded by native Indonesians. The schools can compete with those possessed by Dutch, Catholic, and Christian.
• The 22nd Muhammadiyahn Congress in Semarang was the last congress within K.H. Ibrahim’s chairmanship. Muhammadiyah branches had already existed in almost all over the country.
• The 23rd Muhammadiyah Congress in Yogyakarta elected K.H. Hisyam as the Chairman of Muhammadiyah’s Board of Directors.
• The 24th Muhammadiyah Congress in Banjarmasin elected K.H. Hisyam.
• The 25th Muhammadiyah Congress in Batavia (Jakarta) still elected K.H. Hisyam.
• Mas Mansur became thr Chairman of Muhammadiyah’s Board of Directors based on the 26th congress decision in Yogyakarta until 1943.
• Mas Mansur produced a lot of high quality writings. His reforming thoughts were expressed in mass media. The first magazine published was Suara Santri. The word ‘santri’ was used as the name of the magazine since public liked it very much.
• Jinem was the second magazine published by Mas Mansur. The magazine was published twice a month using Javanese language in Arabic character.
• Mas Mansur became an editorial staff at Kawan magazine in Surabaya.
• After becoming the Chairman of Muhammadiyah’s Board of Directors, he did a successful political blow for Muslim by initiating the establishment of Majelis Islam A’la Indonesia (MIAI) along with KHA. Dahlan and KH Wahab Hasbullah. Both of them were from Nahdlatul Ulama (NU). He, together with Dr. Sukiman Wiryosanjaya, also initiated the establishment of Partai Islam Indonesia or Indonesian Islamic Party (PII) to counterbalance non-cooperative position from Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia (PSII). During the Japanese occupation in Indonesia, Mas Mansur was one of four national figures who took attention. They were known as four-some consisting of Soekarno, Mohammad Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara, and Mas Mansur. The Japanese extreme cruelty to Indonesian people made him go back to Surabaya. His position was replaced by Ki Bagus Hadikusumo.
• When the war broke out, Mas Mansur did not really recover from his illness. However, he joined the Indonesian troop to support young people to fight Dutch soldiers (NICA). He was caught by NICA and sent to prison in Surabaya. In the middle of the war for independence, Mas Mansur passed away in prison on April 25, 1946.
• K.H. Faqih Usman was active in Majelis Islam A’la Indonesia (MIAI).
• When Soekarno was isolated in Bengkulu, Sutan Mansur became his Islamic advisor.
• Bung Karno became the teacher of Muhammadiyah’s sekolah rendah in Bengkulu (Adams, 1966:193).
• The 28th Muhammadiyah Congress in Medan.
• Penolong Kesengsaraan Oemat (People Suffering Helper) became part of Aisyiyah.
1941 - 1950
• There was an inter-branch meeting all over Java as an effort to bridge emergency congress in 1946 in Yogyakarta.
• The 30th Muhammadiyah Congress in Purwokerto was cancelled.
• Japan gave legal status for Muhammadiyah and its branches.
• The meeting of all branches around Java elected Ki Bagus Hadikusumo as a chairman.
• Ki Bagus was a figure who had a strong tendency to institutionalize Islam. Ki Bagus thought that Islamic institution was very important for the sake of ideological, political, and intellectual reasons. It could be seen in his efforts to strengthen the existence of Islamic laws in Indonesia when he and some other ulema got involved in a committee whose responsibility was improving religious court (priesterraden commisse).
• Most important result of commission sessions was an agreement to apply Islamic laws. However, Ki Bagus was disappointed with political stance of colonial government supported by experts on customary law that annulled all important decisions concerning the implementation of Islamic law and replaced with customary law through ordinance decree in 1931.
• Ki Bagus Hadikusumo was courageous to defy the order of cruel Dai Nippon soldier chief who commanded Muslims and Muhammadiyah members to do morning ritual as high respect to God of Sun.
• The government of the Republic of Indonesia decreed that Ki Bagus Hadikusomo was the Pahlawan Perintis Kemerdekaan Nasional Indonesia (National Freedom Fighting Hero).
• Ki Bagus Hadikusumo and Kasman Singodimedjo became the member of PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence).
• K.H. Faqih Usman became the member of Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (National Committee of Central Indonesia) and Ketua Komite Nasional Surabaya (Surabaya National Committee Chair).
• K.H. Faqih Usman also had a role in establishing Masyumi Party since it was set up on November 7, 1945 in Muslim Conference in Yogyakarta.
• Sudirman, a common person who had ever become the chairman of Muhammadiyah’s boy scout (Hizbul Wathan), was appointed the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia that had just got its independence.
• Emergency Congress of Muhammadiyah (friendship meeting for all branches in Java and Madura Island)
• Angkatan Perang Sabil (Sabil Armed Forces) was formed whose post was at Taqwa Mosque. The Chairman was Hadjid. Vice Chairman was A. Badawi, and Ki Bagus Hadikusumo was the Advisor.
• From 1947 to 1949, Vice President Mohammad Hatta appointed Sutan Mansur as Imam or Islamic Teacher for Indonesia Armed Forces of Sumatera commandment that was located in Bukit Tinggi with the rank of Major General Tituler.
• Sutan Mansur was offered to be an Advisor for Indonesian National Army having its office at Army Headquarters. He refused the offer because he had to visit all areas in Sumatera to preach as a Muhammadiyah leader.
• Aisyiyah council was changed into Aisyiyah Central Executive.
• Congress XXXI/Conference I lasted in Yogyakarta, Muhammadiyah’s place of birth, on December 21-26. The conference got extraordinary response from Muhammadiyah’s leading figures because for almost 10 years they did not meet in an official national forum. 83 districts and 97 subdistricts were present. Some important decisions were:
- Supporting and cooperating with the government to improve corrupt moral.
- Cooperating with the government to improve and increase people’s welfare.
- Building hajj ship for Muhammadiyah.
- Providing studiefonds (study fund) to finance students studying abroad.
- Setting up Muhammadiyah University.
• Giving a proposal to Indonesian Muslimin Congress Body and government to hold a World Muslim Congress and Islamic Block Alliance.
• Insisting on Indonesian government to get back bequest wealth seized by Japan.
• Respecting other non Islamic organizations as long as it did not harm Islam and was ready to cooperate.
• Respecting for and cooperating with Islamic organizations. Islamic organizations had to be close each other in order that there was not misunderstanding that could be detrimental to Islam’s main struggle.
• Muhammadiyah member was allowed to become the member of non Islamic political party if it was beneficial for Islam and Muhammadiyah’s goals. The member should bring Muhammadiyah aspiration. When it harmed Islam’s goal, the member would be recalled.
• Muhammadiyah member, whether as a personal or in the name of organization, was allowed to become the member of People’s Representative Assembly (DPR).
1951 – 1960
• 1st Tanwir Meeting in August released resolution to urge Indonesian Government to send back home the prospective pilgrims who failed to go to Mecca and still stayed in Jakarta. The government had to be responsible for the cost and paid a financial loss. The resolution also asked the government to form a commission to find out the problem. The Tanwir Meeting was also successful in formulating conception about Economic Council.
• Subcommittee to plan marriage law was formed. Muhammadiyah asked Masyumi to struggle for not proposing marriage law to DPR before general election. Even, it had to be cancelled if possible. Muhammadiyah’s standpoint created various reactions.
• Madrasah (school) Muallimin Muhammadiyah was rebuilt. Before it was broken to pieces during clash II, the building was used as a guerilla post in fighting the Dutch colonial.
• K.H. Faqih Usman was reappointed as Religious Affairs Minister in Wilopo cabinet (April 3, 1952 - August 953). The phenomena of Faqih Usman appointment for the second time brought about a conflict between Masyumi and NU.
• President Soekarno asked Sutan Mansur to be the Presidential Advisor under the condition of taking all his family members to Jakarta. Again, he refused the offer. He just wanted to be an unofficial advisor, so he didn’t need to move to Jakarta.
• Sutan Mansur was appointed as Deputy of Syura (consultative) Chairman of Central Masyumi.
• 322 districts and 1,612 subdistricts with 69,554 members had been formed and restored.
• Conference XXXII took place in Purwokerto. Job transferring, for the first time, was done in written form as awareness of the importance of organizational order. Beforehand, it was done orally.
• On July 7, 1953, President Soekarno sent a letter stating that, among other, Muhammadiyah’s big contribution for spiritual life of country, nation, and Indonesian people.
• President Soekarno also admitted that he had known Muhammadiyah long ago and prayed Muhammadiyah to always get taufik and hidayah (God’s piety and guidance) in order to keep contributing for the country’s development.
• Hikmah Council was formed to pay attention to and learn about everything related to Muhammadiyah and political problems. Its main duty was gathering political balance concerning religion and Muslim in general as well as Muhammadiyah itself. Besides, political educational program for Muhammadiyah members was outlined.
• Tanwir Meeting on April 11-14 took a decision that the bases of general election were the winning of Islam, the unity of Masyumi, the benefit for Muhammadiyah, the agreement of principles of regulation plan for proposing DPR members and constitutional assembly drawn up by Central Executive Board of Msyumi with amendments submitted to Muhammadiyah.
• The influence of Muhammadiyah reached Penang.
• Sutan Mansur was elected as the member of Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (KNIP) or Central Indonesian National Committee and the member of Constitutional Assembly from Masyumi since Constitutional Assembly was established until it was dismissed by Soekarno.
• Muhammadiyah Conference XXXIII in Palembang was successful in producing khittah (action line or organizational platform) Palembang.
• Tanwir Council Meeting on August 24-26 in Yogyakarta took some decisions. First, assigning its officials based on their respective skills by being guided by khittah Muhammadiyah and paying attention to suggestions given in Tanwir meeting. Second, assigning Hamka and Bustami Arifin to write a special essay in order to face atheism. Third, inviting ulema, Islamic leaders, and Muslim intellectuals to give their opinion how to keep Muslims from the danger of atheism.
• Ikatan Pelajar Sekolah Muhammadiyah (IKPSM) or Muhammadiyah School Students Association was formed in Solo.
• Rebellion of PRRI (Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia or Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia) happened. Sutan Mansur was in the middle since he did not like PKI (Indonesian Communist Party) and Bung Karno’s dictatorship.
• As one of Masyumi leaders, K.H. Faqih Usman also actively involved in political conflict resolution in Indonesia. Prior to the rebellion of PRRI in West Sumatera, he and Moch. Roem tried to be a mediator to settle the conflict between PRRI and Central Government. He tried to meet his friends in Masyumi who got involved in PRRI such as Muhammad Natsir, Boerhanuddin Harahap, and Sjafruddin Prawiranegara to discuss the problem that could cause a civil war.
• Kahar Muzakar, who was educated in Muhammadiyah and came from South Sulawesi, did resistance to Indonesian Central Government by forming DI/TII movement.
• Fakih Usman, along with Hamka, Joesoef Abdullah Poear, and Joesoef Ahmad, published Panji Masyarakat (Panjimas) magazine.
• Conference XXXIV of Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta on November 18-23 elected M. Junus Anies as the Chairman of Central Executive for the period of 1959-1962. The conference stipulated the steps for the future from 1959 to 1962 “that includes leadership, mission, education and teaching, humanity, wakaf (bequest), youth, economy, religion, literature, and other sectors deemed necessary.”
• 2nd Conference of Muhammadiyah Youth decided the forming of Muhammadiyah Student Association as an official organization of Muhammadiyah students.
1961 - 1970
• Based upon K.H. Ahmad Dahlan’s contribution in revitalizing the awareness of this country through Islamic and educational reform, the government of the Republic of Indonesia granted him a National Hero (Presidential Decree no. 657 year 1961). The reasons of the decree were: 1. KHA Dahlan has pioneered Muslims’ uprising to realize their destiny as colonized people that still need to learn and take action; 2. Muhammadiyah organization he has founded has taught pure Islamic teachings to the people of this country. The teachings demand modernization, intelligence, and contribution for people with the basis of faith and Islam; 3. With the soul of Islamic teachings, Muhammadiyah has become the pioneer of social and educational services that are badly needed for the country’s uprising and development; 4. Muhammadiyah’s women organization (Aisyiyah) has pioneered women uprising in Indonesia to study and conduct social function on a par with men.
• Muhammadiyah Students Association or Ikatan Pelajar Muhammadiyah (IPM) was formed on July 16.
• Tanwir Meeting on November 25-27 in Yogyakarta accepted the plan of Garis Perjuangan Muhammadiyah (the Outline of Muhammadiyah Struggle) from Dr. Sukiman Wiryosanjoyo. The main point was it asked Muhammadiyah to enlarge its struggle, not only social sector but also other sectors that can contribute to the struggle for the supremacy of Islam.
• Conference XXXV of Muhammadiyah in Jakarta elected Ahmad Badawai as the Chairman of Central Executive. In closing reception, President Soekarno delivered closing remarks titled “Makin Lama Makin Cinta” or “The longer, the more profound love”, and Dr. Roeslan Abdoelgani addressed the speech titled “Palu Godam Terhadap Kolonialisme dan Imperialisme, Muhammadiyah Sebagai Gelombang Pemukul Kembali Terhadap Kolonialisme dan Imperialisme” or “The Sledgehammer for Colonialism and Imperialism: Muhammadiyah is a Beating Wave against Colonialism and Imperialism.”
• The conference also produced the formulation of Muhammadiyah character. The work was led by K.H. Faqih Usman.
• The course for Cadres of Muhammadiyah Executive around Indonesia was done to refresh Muhammadiyah struggle.
• There was a new development in spreading Muhammadiyah influence. Utusan Melayu newspaper reported that there was the center of Muhammadiyah movement in Kuala Lumpur that aimed as a center of Islamic education and propagation around Tanah Melayu. Even though in terms of organization it was outside the association, its statute was similar to that of Muhammadiyah.
• During Ahmad Badawi’s chairmanship, KOKAM method in administration was introduced. It was noted that there were 185,119 muhammadiyah members, 2,300 subdistricts, 712 districts, and 36 regional representatives starting from Aceh to Nusa Tenggara. After Irian Barat rejoined as a part of the Republic of Indonesia, Muhammadiyah influence appeared in Fakfak, Kotabaru, Sorong Besar, Sorong Raja Empat, and Manokwari that was pioneered by Ibrahim Bauw Radja Rumbeti and regional officials and government employees who were Muhammadiyah members.
• The document of “The Policy of Muhammadiyah Central Executive for the Period of 1962-1965 and 1965-1968” was released. It described Muhammadiyah interaction in national political policy. The policy was Muhammadiyah political policy in deciding the policies to adapt and interact against appearing political problems.
• Nasyiatul Aisyiyah was given autonomous status that was separated from Aisyiyah.
• Ahmad Badawi was appointed as the Presidential Advisor for religious affairs.
• K.H. Fakhruddin did various movements and struggles to improve the fate and condition of Indonesian people from ignorance, lowness, and suppression under the Dutch colonization. Respecting his contribution to the country, the government of the Republic of Indonesia granted him a National Independence Hero based on Presidential Decree no. 162/1964.
• Muhammadiyah College Students Association or Ikatan Mahasiswa Muhammadiyah (IMM) was set up on March 14 or Syawal 29, 1384 in Islamic calendar (Fathoni, 101).
• Hamka was caught and sent to prison until 1966. He was put in jail by President Soekarno on the charge of pro-Malaysia. During his living in jail, Hamka wrote his masterpiece, Tafsir (Al Qur’an interpretation) Al Azhar.
• Representatives of 33 regions and 166 districts were present at 1st National Meeting of Aisyiyah.
• Conference XXXVI of Muhammadiyah in Bandung
• Badan Koordinasi Amal Muslimin (Coordinating Board of Muslims’ Charity) was formed on August 16. Muhammadiyah was one of supporting organizations among 16 organizations joining the body.
• Soekarno said in his biography written by Cindy Adam, “what I always want when I die is that my coffin is covered with the Islamic banner of Muhammadiyah.” (p. 459)
• Thanksgiving for the release of political prisoners was held at Al Azhar Mosque on August 15. The event was chaired by Prof. DR. Hamka. After he was released from the prison, Hamka was appointed as the member of Badan Musyawarah Kebajikan Nasional (Consultative Body of National Benevolence), the member of Majelis Perjalanan Haji Indonesia (Indonesian Hajj Council), and the member of Lembaga Kebudayaan Nasional (National Arts Institute).
• Conference XXXVII of Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta
• Ahmad Badawi was appointed as the member of Dewan Pertimbangan Agung (Supreme Advisory Council).
• Faqih Usman, along with Hasan Basri (former Chairman of Indonesian Ulema Council) and Anwar Haryono (former Chairman of Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah), sent political memorandum to New Order government (known as K.H. Faqih Usman memorandum) to ask government to rehabilitate Masyumi as a forbidden party.
1971 - 2009
• Conference XXXVIII of Muhammadiyah in Ujung Pandang.
• Conference XXXIX of Muhammadiyah in Padang
• Conference XL of Muhammadiyah in Surabaya
• Conference XLI of Muhammadiyah in Surakarta
• K.H. A.R. Fakhruddin sent letter to Pope John Paul II during his visit in Indonesia. The letter was soft criticism. In the letter, A.R. Fakhruddin stated that majority of Indonesian people were Muslims. However, there was a problem in which Catholics often influenced poor Muslims to change their religion. The Catholics gave money, fulfilled the poor Muslim’s needs, built houses, lent money for trading capital provided that they embraced Christianity. Muslims were persuaded to change their religion. Mister Fakhruddin stated that religion had to be spread in sportive and noble ways.
• Conference XLII of Muhammadiyah was held in Yogyakarta. Presidential succession of the Republic of Indonesia was a conference agenda.
• In Muhammadiyah statues, starting from Statute 1 to 14, the term used that was similar to ‘mission’ was ‘maksud’ or aim, except in 4th and 5th Statute that used the term ‘hajat’ or intention. The term ‘mission’ can be found in the writings of Muhammadiyah’s leading figures, especially Ustadz K.H. Ahmad Azhar Basyir, MA (the Chairman of Muhammadiyah Central Executive for the period of 1990-1995), who once specially wrote about Muhammadiyah Mission as an Islamic Movement.
• Conference XLIII of Muhammadiyah in Banda Aceh
• Prof. Dr. HM Amien Rais was elected as the General Chairman of Muhammadiyah Central Executive.
• The working scope of Tarjih (Law) Council is not only fikih (Islamic Jurisprudence) but also development of Islamic thought. Since Muhammadiyah Conference in Aceh, therefore, the council changed its name into Majelis Tarjih dan Pengembangan Pemikiran Islam (MTPPI) or Tarjih and Islamic Thought Development Council.
• Prof. Dr. Ahmad Syafii Marif replaced Prof. Dr. HM Amien Rais as the General Chairman since the later had to lead National Mandate Party (PAN) as the continuation of reform mandate.
• Conference XLIV of Muhammadiyah in Jakarta elected Prof. Dr. Ahmad Syafii Maarif as the General Chairman.
• Tanwir Meeting in Denpasar, Bali, on Januari 24-27, decided that Muhammadiyah needed to prepare its best cadre as a national leader (Khittah in National Life)
• Tanwir meeting discussed Khittah (Platform) of Muhammadiyah in various problems, including Muhammadiyah recommendation for the advancement of the country. Another problem was the discussion about Bank Persyarikatan (Muhammadiyah Bank). The discussion was to decide whether the bank management would be managed using conventional or syariah (Islamic) way.
• The problem of national politic was discussed in plenary session VII led by A. Watik Pratiknya. Malik Fajar, the National Education Minister, Prof. Dr. Ismail Suny, the expert on constitutional law, and Din Syamsuddin, the Deputy Chairman of Muhammadiyah Central Executive, also gave the speech. Amin Rais delivered the speech during plenary session III who was led by Bambang Sudibyo. Other famous speakers such as Nurcholis Madjid, Jakob Oetama, and Taufik Abdullah were also present. They discussed the theme of “National Problem and the Country’s Enlightenment Agenda”.
• Tanwir Meeting in Ujung Pandang lasted on June 26-29, 2003. This was the last Tanwir Meeting before general election in 2004.
• Muhammadiyah Conference in Malang
• Prof. Dr. Din Syamsuddin was elected as General Chairman of Muhammadiyah Executive.
• Zhawahir al-Afkar al-Muhammadiyah ‘Abra Qarn min al-Zaman (Statement of Muhammadiyah Thoughts Approaching to One Century)
• Muhammadiyah Central Executive released a decree no. 149/2006 on Konsolidasi dan Amal Usaha (Consolidation and Charity and Services). It contained a relationship form between Muhammadiyah and other Islamic movements as well as political parties. Muhammadiyah had a right and legitimacy to be free from all kinds of interference, influence, and interest of any party that could disturb the unity and continuance of Muhammadiyah mission.
• Tanwir Meting was held in Yogyakarta on April 25-29, 2007. It was the first Tanwir meeting after the 45th Conference of Muhammadiyah dated July 3-8, 2005. Tanwir 2007 in Yogyakarta raised the theme of “Movement Enlightenment for the Country’s Advancement”. The main focus in Tanwir was aimed to make an effort in enlightening, revitalizing, and consolidating the organization based on the problem faced by the organization for almost 2 years in implementing the decisions of the 45th conference. Tanwir 2007 also discussed an effort to increase nation role and people and humanity that had to be done by organization based on a proclaimed commitment in “The Statement of Muhammadiyah Thoughts Approaching One Century”.
• Tanwir 2007 also emphasized on the importance of Muhammadiyah to encourage economic sector in order that Muhammadiyah was reconsidered as economic power. It also emphasized on bringing back Muhammadiyah to the beginning of establishment in which the majority of its members were entrepreneurs. One recommendation of this Tanwir Meeting was asking the government to favor people’s economic empowerment.
• Tanwir Meeting year 2009 was held in Bandar Lampung. This was second meeting in this period and the meeting prior to 46th Conference in Yogyakarta in the middle of 2010.
• Tanwir Meeting had some goals, among other, producing the decision to increase Muhammadiyah role as an Islamic movement having the concept of Amar Makruf Nahi Munkar (doing good deeds and abandoning bad ones) in rebuilding the country’s vision and character in the middle of other ever-advancing countries.
• Tanwir Meeting 2009 was held prior to general election in 2009 when political condition in Indonesia was hot
• Muhammadiyah gave recommendation concerning general election 2009: 1) Urging political parties and all nation components not to make general election 2009 as an arena to get power that could lead to pragmatism and justifying the means. General election had to be a momentum to produce responsible members of parliament, president, and vice president in carrying out people’s mandate, managing the country well, producing pro-people policies, respecting wisdom values and public ethic, building trust, and not getting personal interest in implementing the authority; 2) Muhammadiyah urged all nation components to elect national leader who met the criteria of:
1. Having strong vision and character as a statesman who prioritized the interest of country and nation more than the interest of political party, self, family, and cronies;
2. Being courageous in taking all kinds of important decision and strategies concerning the necessities of people and the country’s interest. He should be able to solve crucial problems of the countries firmly and protect nation’s asset and wealth;
3. Able to keep national authority and sovereignty from inside or outside threats and to realize good governance, including eradicating corruption regardless of who it is.
4. Abandoning any position in a political party and concentrating on managing and leading the country.
(trans by hmz - uhamka)